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Although the etiology is not clear, there are a minority of cases, less than 10%, where autism is part of another condition.
Such cases are often referred to as “secondary” autism; these include tuberous sclerosis, fragile X syndrome, phenylketonuria and congenital infections secondary to rubella and cytomegalovirus(11-17).
Etiology The exact cause of autism and the other ASDs is still not known.
Therefore, it is important that physicians be able to recognize the various signs and symptoms of this group of disorders(19).
Presentation 50% of parents (and more) have cause for concern by 12-18 months of age. Other common concerns include: Regression (losing skills that have been acquired) is seen in approximately 25% of children.
The skills may be in language, play or social skills(18).
Epidemiology ASD occurs more often in boys than girls, with a 4:1 male-to-female ratio(4).
The reported prevalence rates of autism and its related disorders have been increasing worldwide over the past decades, from approximately 4 per 10 000 to children(5-9).